Decentralization and Handshake Domain System

Decentralization and Handshake Domain System

Decentralization and Handshake Domain System

The traditional web service is managed by a centralized and structured system of registrars. This indicates that specific organizations allocate and oversee the distinctive domain names and IP addresses associated with numerous websites Handshake Domain. At the root of this centralized domain name system is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). They coordinate the management and issuance of domain names and manage the root server system to ensure universal resolvability.

For the most part, ICANN takes a neutral and advisory role because the role of registering a domain is delegated chiefly to certain ICANN-accredited registrars like Godaddy. However, these accredited registrars still report to ICANN as the root of the centralized system. They are still primarily responsible for managing Top Level Domains (TLDs) and maintaining the root zone files.

While the need for this centralized body of control is understandable, the fact that so much authority is delegated to a single entity means it has a single point of failure. The goal for Handshake is, therefore, to create a better alternative to ICANN and eventually replace this central mode of governance with a more distributed and decentralized process. This implies that they will also assume ICANN’s primary responsibility of managing TLDs and root zone files but will do so via blockchain to be more distributed and decentralized.


What are Top Level Domains (TLDs)

A domain name system (DNS) is what makes internet addresses understandable to humans. It is a vital part of the internet because it helps users find websites by converting numerical Internet Protocol (IP) addresses into user-friendly names. For example, “” instead of “”. The top-level domain, also known as the domain extension, is the .com that makes up the final part of the domain name. Owners have complete control over their TLDs in a decentralized system.


Decentralized Domain Name System

A decentralized DNS means that instead of a central server, there are many different places where data can be stored. It is simply a new method of organizing the network and making it safer for users by removing any single point of failure or attack vector. It removes the central authority associated with a traditional domain name system, which allows for new features, access control, and security mechanisms.


What’s The Point of Decentralized Domain Names?

Management of TLDs in the traditional web system is the sole responsibility of ICANN. However, with the emergence of the Handshake Naming System (HNS), web owners can now benefit from a more decentralized domain system where they have complete control over their data and can use their TLDs as they wish. The ICANN-controlled centralized Domain Name System functions successfully for the most part. However, the centralized database means an incredible increase in traffic volume, which makes maintenance more difficult. When top-level DNS servers fail in this system, a large portion of the internet is affected. In essence, the system relies on the reliability of registrars and registry operators, and it has a single point of control and, by extension, failure.

However, like most decentralized systems, such as crypto domains, a decentralized domain system is based on blockchain technology. This allows domain names to be registered on a blockchain instead of with a registrar. Overall, a decentralized domain system will guarantee more anonymity, security and freedom. It will also give owners total control of their domains and TLDs, making censorship much harder. The decentralized technology of domain name systems is, however, still in its early days, so there is still space for growth. Many important projects in this light are already making significant progress. So far, the Handshake domain has been one of the most interesting decentralized domain naming systems.


Handshake Domains

Handshake is a decentralized naming protocol that runs on blockchain technology. It is a peer-to-peer network that operates outside of a central authority structure. This means that it bypasses the management of traditional centralized data hosting services and gives domains and websites more freedom and security. It is a system that supports web 3.0, and the overall idea is to restructure the existing Internet system so that they benefit people rather than entities.


How Handshake Domains Operate

The primary objective of Handshake is to introduce a decentralized domain naming protocol that is open to everyone by replacing the root zone fork and servers. It intends to replace ICANN’s function as the primary authority for assigning and managing top-level domains with a blockchain-based open auction system. In essence, it decentralizes the root zone file, which stores TLD ownership information, by establishing a distributed and decentralized blockchain-based system that no one owns and that anybody can use. This makes it possible to create a root zone that is uncensorable, permissionless, and unrestrained by gatekeepers like ICANN. It also makes it possible for millions of new, unrestricted, and unique domain names to be created. Here are some other valuable features of the decentralized Handshake system.



Domain ownership is determined by a cryptographic key, so when you register a Handshake domain, no personal information is required. Hence, your privacy is more protected.


Complete Control

With Handshake, the domain records are stored on the decentralized handshake blockchain, so no individual or organization can make management decisions affecting domain owners or the network. The domain records can be modified only by the name’s owner. Therefore, as long as owners have control over their private keys, they have total control over their data and are free to use their TLDs as they see fit. Their names cannot be seized, censored, maliciously redirected, or tampered with in any way.


Endless Top Level Domains

In the traditional domain name system, ICANN determines what top-level domains are allowed. Owners must also pay a yearly renewal fee because domain registration is built on a leasing system. In essence, owners are actually paying an annual fee to rent a sub-domain from the registrar’s limited list of top-level domains. On the other hand, anyone can register Handshake names, and the TLDs can be virtually anything, from English letters and decimal numbers to Chinese characters and even emojis. For example, apart from the conventional .com, .org and so on, handshake domains can have TLDs like .pgp, .sox, .elite, .creator, .home, .lisa or contain any character.

Handshake domain does not also mandate a yearly rental or renewal fee. Instead, it operates an auction system where the market determines the price of any given top-level domain. Handshake TLD owners, however, still need to submit a biennial mining fee to prove they still have access to their name. Without this submission, such a name will become auction-able again, and a different owner can have it.



Handshake domains are a much more decentralized alternative to traditional domain naming systems and certification authorities. The goal is to replace the central root zone fork and root servers with an open system.

Handshake Domain Web 3.0 Features of Web 3.0


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